New born babies are
those who were just born and those up to 4 weeks old. It is the period when their physiological responses to adjust to the environment outside the uterus to survive are being completed, which is the most unstable and vulnerable period for them in their entire life. You will be offered a close physical checkup and observation at a hospital for 2-3 days after the delivery. Still, you need to observe and assess the physical status of your baby yourself after you go home.
Right after the birth, a new born baby's head is longish but after several days, it becomes round. Some have caput succedaneum where the head is swollen, while some have cephalhematoma where a tender lump on the head is present for a few weeks to several months. Most of them will get better naturally, so don't worry. In the center of the front of a baby's head is a soft area, which is called the anterior fontanel. This is present until a baby becomes 1 year old. It is normal for it to come up and down when it is being fed or cries, but if it continues to remain sunken or protruding, a medical diagnosis is required.
There are very fine lanugos on a baby's face, shoulders and the back, which will be gone within a few weeks. Those that look like white pimples on the cheek or nose are called milia, which will also be gone in several weeks. In addition, there is a lump shaped like a hulled millet on the palate or the gum. This is called cholesteatoma and will disappear naturally. There is a red spot on a baby's forehead, between the eyes and on the back of the neck. This is called the salmon patch or phakoma and will disappear as the baby grows. The bluish Mongolian spot is very common in Asians and is usually found on the buttocks, torso or legs.
Breathing and Heartbeat
A baby breathes about 30 to 40 times a minute and his/her heart beats 120 to 160 times a minute, which is twice faster than an adult.
A newborn baby's abdomen tends to look bulging. This is because the abdomen wall muscles are weak. The umbilical cord mostly falls out 2 weeks after the birth.
A female baby may have vaginal discharges due to her mother's hormones. The symptoms of a false period where the blood comes out may occur 4 to 5 days after birth.
A healthy newborn baby starts to turn the head and suck anything that comes near the mouth. This is called the sucking reflex. If you put down the baby or shake his/her crib, your baby may start to cry while opening the arms making a hugging motion. This is called the Moro reflex or the startle reflex, which is normal and does not require any medical attention. Some babies shake the hands, legs or jaw area. Unlike spasms, this is caused by bodily contacts. The shaking occurs 5 to 6 times per second quickly and will stop when you hold them with your hands. This is called the tremor, and not a disease, so don't worry!
A new born baby can see objects within a distance of 20cm right after birth and grows to see things within a distance of 1m by the time it reaches 1 month. The auditory capacity will become complete by this period and your baby can recognize sounds. Babies are very sensitive to noises. They might fall into deep sleep when noises like the sound of a vacuum cleaner become severe.